Best of SNO

Finding the good amidst COVID-19

From cultivating new hobbies and skills to strengthening bonds with their loved ones, students have sought the light during dark months of the COVID-19 pandemic.

By Tanner Smith, Hannah Chern, and Anna Owsley

October 23, 2020

There’s no denying that COVID-19 has taken its toll across the country – costing thousands of lives, disrupting the economy and completely altering everyday life. However, in the face of these struggles, students have sought ways to make the most of these unprecedented times. Amidst long, dark months...

Their heritage is more than a month

Once recognized as

By Caroline Caruso and Ana Cuen

October 23, 2020

More than a percentage. More than a statistic written on paper. Their heritage reaches far beyond the confines of a population census. Their story is more. Although a national holiday, many gloss over the significance of Hispanic Heritage Month, failing to dive beneath the surface of its bigge...

The Shadow Pandemic

While people all over the world battle the COVID-19 pandemic, other dangers follow in its wake.

By Rebecca Michaeli, Iowa City High School

October 23, 2020

Trigger warning: domestic abuse An alarming secondary crisis lurks behind the COVID-19 pandemic most of us are familiar with. The so-called “shadow pandemic” refers to the increase in domestic abuse cases. The shadow pandemic, though not as prominent in the public consciousness as COVID-19, is...

Finding harmony amidst chaos

Kathy Ferguson, LHS Choir teacher expressed how the pandemic has impacted the choir program.

By Alexis Miller, Lincoln High School

October 22, 2020

“A year ago today, I couldn’t ever envision this conversation taking place,” said Dan Carlson, LHS Band Director. For all students, this year is a change. But, for music students, this year is catastrophic. Every day holds another set of unknowns and another round of cancellations. Disappointment...

Deinhammer featured by Apple for CMS East gardening class

Coppell East science teacher Jodie Deinhammer works in the Coppell Middle School East garden on Friday. Deinhammer created this garden to help foster students' learning.

By Anjali Vishwanath, Coppell High School

October 22, 2020

The Coppell Middle School East course guide has expanded to include one new elective course: seventh grade science teacher Jodie Deinhammer’s gardening class. Deinhammer also leads the CMS East Sustainability Club, which provides students with the opportunity to participate in fundraising activities...

Fearing for the Future of the Planet, La Salle Students Take Action on Climate Change, Calling for Systemic Changes from Leaders

Deciding whether to drive or take public transportation is a choice many people face on a daily basis that can have significant environmental impacts.

By Mary Loeb, La Salle Catholic Preparatory High School

October 22, 2020

Around the globe, youth have spearheaded the movement for climate change action, driven by increasing frustration with a lack of action from leaders and compelled by the fear that their generation may not have a certain future on the planet.  Climate change has become an issue of increasing conce...

Droughts, wildfires, and pollution: California’s hellscape

Humans are the cause of the planet’s environmental changes. The ones most heavily paying for their mistakes are the other creatures that live on it.

By Kai Yoshida, Carlmont High School

October 22, 2020

Global warming: gas emissions trap heat in the atmosphere and the polar ice caps. That statement is too vague. Global warming is but a part of the much, much more significant problem.  Environmental change: global warming, water pollution, air pollution, environmental degradation, droughts, invasive ...

Students and Teachers Pay the Price of Online Learning

Eager to teach, AP Human Geography and AP Government teacher, Megan Blash, has her two computers out ready for her next class.

By Mercedes Barriga, Antonio Heras, Angelica Hernandez Contreras, and Britney Perez

October 22, 2020

With the city of Santa Ana having the highest numbers of COVID-19 cases in Orange County, schools in the Santa Ana Unified School District (SAUSD) are continuing distance learning for the start of the 2020-2021 school year as a precautionary measure. It’s been a major adjustment for both students...

Grady gets out the vote

Grady students are working with different organizations and campaigns to help encourage voter turnout.

By Yei Bin Andrews, Henry W. Grady High School

October 22, 2020

Some have called 2020 the year of reckoning. Others have dubbed it the worst year in recent memory. However, for some Grady students, 2020 has been the year of political activism. Grady alumna Sarah Taylor graduated in 2015. At the time, Taylor did not imagine herself working with a political party. ...

An inside look at teaching during a pandemic

The senior hallway has been unoccupied by students since March.

By Zoe DeYoung, Parkway West High School

October 22, 2020

Before we left school March 13 of last school year, we were told to empty our lockers and bring all of our textbooks home. Some felt this was an overreaction by administration, but many minds were changed after seeing the data behind the decision. COVID-19 took the world by surprise, and usurped the ability to safely leav...

Latin Alumni Call Older Alumni to Combat Loneliness

Connor Kaniewski '17, champion of the Golden Roman outreach program

By Akshay Garapati, Latin School of Chicago

October 21, 2020

After graduating from Latin in 2017, Connor Kaniewski looked for a way to give back to the Latin community. He learned that sometimes all it takes is a simple phone call. This act has proven invaluable amid the COVID-19 pandemic, which has lasted nearly eight months and killed over 200,000 people...

Redhawks launch sustainable coffee ground company

Redhawk siblings Gurnoor and Arshia Narula launched their company, Groundify, earlier this year. Groundify is a sustainable company that works with local coffee shops to turn coffee waste into retail products such as skincare and candles.

By Hannah Beeler and Saachi Kuchu

October 21, 2020

For many students, the thought of coffee is one of the first things on their minds in the morning. What some don’t think about is the amount of waste their cup of joe creates. After use, coffee grounds go to landfills, where they become harmful pollutants that emit greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However,...

Halloween’s trick becomes Atlanta’s treat

Noble Park resident tosses candy to a trick-or-treater, a method called

By Lindsay Ruhl, Henry W. Grady High School

October 21, 2020

Neighborhoods throughout Atlanta have new ways to celebrate Halloween this year while staying safe and socially distant. Halloween parades across the city have been cancelled due to a state ban on gatherings larger than 50 people. Despite this, residents have developed creative ways to adapt trick-or-treating,...

Unmasking a fashion trend: COVID-19 coverings lead to Lancers’ collection for trendy, stylish wardrobe for going out

Senior Meagan Kimbrell takes out her collection of 30 masks that she has bought either from Amazon or Target since the COVID-19 pandemic in mid-March. Though Kimbrell does not plan to return to campus Nov. 2 for hybrid learning, she still values mask fashion and will continue to promote her new finds on social media.

By Dominique Chang, Sunny Hills High School

October 20, 2020

At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in mid-March, senior Meagan Kimbrell purchased her first mask: a $7, gray fabric with white polka dots from the Target at Town Center near Sunny Hills High School. Not knowing how long quarantine would last, Kimbrell decided to buy some more face coverings, leaving...


According to the New York Times, 15 million to 26 million people in the U.S. alone have attended rallies in support of the Black Lives Matter movement since the killing of George Floyd in May.

By Marta Leira, Fareeha Ahmad, and Maya Chu

October 20, 2020

The streets of Iowa City were lined with protesters demanding racial equality. Groups chanting “Hands up, don’t shoot” and “Say their names” filled every corner of the city while voices echoed across graffiti-lined streets. Megaphones boomed over the crowd as organizers shared their experiences,...

Students battle stress, fatigue, apathy as they adjust to virtual classes

Sophomore Camille Wilson does her ceramics project. Ceramics is definitely one of those classes that having to be at home has impacted. Instead of working with clay in the classroom, students all picked up clay at the beginning of the year to do their projects from home. “I love the idea of ceramics and have a lot of fun creating different pieces, but I think it would all be a lot more successful if we were able to work in school,” Wilson said. Photo by Olivia Escalante.

By Josie Bradsby, McCallum High School

October 19, 2020

The online school year has started, and it is a stark change from the normal, in-person school. Compared to the relatively relaxed online courses of the spring semester, online leanring in the fall has meant to provide the same rigor and assessment of in-person classes in an attempt to salvage the year....

Mask Mobile distributes masks to those in need

The Mask Mobile hands out COVID-19 supplies, and promotes social distancing.

By Oliver Fichte, Carlmont High School

October 19, 2020

San Mateo County’s Mask Mobile distributed over 900 masks to the hardest-hit communities in the past week to keep families safe during the pandemic. The Mask Mobile project was introduced on Sept. 15 to ensure that the most vulnerable are getting the protection they need from COVID-19. Funded by...

Art teachers bring the art classroom to students’ homes

Students continue to learn art despite not being in person.

By Allison Hsieh, Lynbrook High School - CA

October 19, 2020

To many students, art classes play a unique role in their school schedule. It gives them a break from the lecture-based classroom and encourages them to display individuality through their own work. When art classes were at risk of halting due to shelter in place, art teachers worked extensively to bring...

The digital dilemma

With the upcoming election presenting students with a slew of information, discerning what's true on the internet can be difficult.

By Heidi Du and Audrey Parrish

October 19, 2020

COVID-19 paired with election season has caused a surge in the amount of political discourse that takes place online, leaving students to distinguish between what’s real and what’s fake. In terms of political events, 2020 has provided plenty. With the upcoming presidential election, the many areas...

Rio Alum Wins 2020 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine

Charles Rice, who won the 2020 Nobel Prize for Medicine, graduated from Rio in 1970. His senior portrait is shown on the left.

By Katelyn Newton, Rio Americano High School

October 19, 2020

Alumnus Charles Rice received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine last week for his groundbreaking contributions to treating Hepatitis C, marking the first Nobel Prize winner to graduate from Rio Americano. In announcing the award, the Nobel committee noted that Rice and his co-winners Harv...

Class of 2002 grad on Missouri’s Nov. 3 ballot for Attorney General

Before earning degrees at the University of North Carolina and Washington University, Democratic candidate for Missouri Attorney General, Rich Finneran could be found in classrooms at Lafayette. He was heavily involved in Mock Trial, Theater, Speech and Debate among other things. He said he became interested in public service and the law early in life. He still has strong connections to LHS, serving on the board of the Class of 2002's Memorial Scholarship Fund.

By Juli Mejia and Vijay Viswanathan

October 19, 2020

“What's most important to me is that I'm finding a way to give back as much as I can to the people of our state and do what I can to improve the lives of the people in our state,” Democratic nominee for Attorney General Rich Finneran said. He will be facing Republican nominee and current Attorn...

From ‘B-list’ celebrity to A-list teacher

HOUSE OF BLUES. Members of Azure Bloom play the house of Blues in Chicago in the 90s. Before he became a part of his student’s lives, Choir Director Ken Labonski was a part of a band, Azure Bloom.

By Katherine Lee, Willis High School

October 19, 2020

As the house lights dim and the hum of a mic fills the room, the performer looks out into the crowd, takes a deep breath and knows that this is where he belongs.  For choir director, Ken Labonski, the stage of the PAC has not been the only stage where he has left an audience speechless. Before he...

MVHS Spanish and French teachers implement a stereotype unit

This map indicate Spanish-speaking regions of the world, where Spanish is the official language. Graphic credit | Map Handbook

By Oishee Misra, Monta Vista High School

October 19, 2020

“Why are we learning about monuments in Paris?” [dropcap]L[/dropcap]ast year, when a student asked French teacher Sarah Finck this question midway through their unit on Parisian culture, she instinctively thought, “Challenging, but fair question.” She then went on to explain that if her students...

You’re not alone: Impact of COVID around the globe

People all over planet Earth are being impacted by COVID-19.

By Christine Hinckley, Middle College High School

October 19, 2020

If you cough in public now, everyone will look at you. Ever since coronavirus hit the world, our lives have changed. From the way we shop to our living situation, COVID-19 has affected our lives greatly. But you're not the only person dealing with this tough time. There is a world around us. A world...

Students Create Clothing Business Amid Pandemic

Alex Hohlen, Co-Founder of Shop Prep STL, holds a limited edition Nike shoe in his basement headquarters.

By Carter Van Buskirk, Marquette High School

October 16, 2020

With the emergence of COVID-19, many students have had extra time to pursue other hobbies and interests. For two students, the spare time provoked a jump start to entrepreneurship and business experience. Alex Hohlen, junior, and Christian Springer, junior, are the co-founders of Shop Prep STL. The...

What Do Your Teachers Think of Distance Learning?

Woodside teacher Ann Akey conducts distance learning office hours from her room in the F-wing on October 1st, 2020. Akey says that she has been teaching online from school instead of at home due to a much better connection and fewer distractions at school.

By Cedrik von Briel, Woodside High School - CA

October 15, 2020

It has now been six weeks since the start of the 2020/21 school year, and for the first time in Woodside High School’s 60+ year history, that first month has been conducted from home for most Woodside students and teachers. Since the novel coronavirus caused the Sequoia Union High School District...

Amanda Taylor’s Unplug Collective: Bringing Black Women Together

Taylor founded Unplug Collective just under two years ago. On their website, they describe themselves as a space where social media is used, “as a digital healing circle for our community to discuss topics that are otherwise silenced in our homes, schools, and workplaces.”

By Kate Sibery, The Masters School

October 14, 2020

 Nike Women launched a new activewear collaboration in late September that seeks to empower black women and people across the gender spectrum. The post announcing the collaboration to their 7.5 million followers on Nike Women’s Instagram featured the CEO of their campaign collaborator, Masters’ alumna Amanda Taylor ‘18. Taylor founded Unplug Collective j...

Alumna advocates for students with disabilities

Due to her chronic illnesses, Cameron Lynch (’19) was not able to return to campus for college. In response, Lynch has created a support group for students in similar situations.

By Daniel De Beer, The American School in London

October 14, 2020

According to the Public and Commercial Services Union, around a third of disabled adults reported that they felt they were spending too much time alone as a result of the coronavirus outbreak. However, Cameron Lynch (’19), a sophomore at William & Mary who is diagnosed with a form of muscular d...

It’s called Discord, but the instant messaging app has actually done more uniting during COVID-19 pandemic

 Sunny Hills students, such as seniors David Chu and Joyce Park, nicknamed “chu” and “leannes %231 fan” respectively, utilize the multi-channel features of Discord by chatting in text servers. On the left, various text and voice channels are located for members of the specific Discord server to chat in.

By Elijah Jhee, Sunny Hills High School

October 14, 2020

During a time when face-to-face interaction and social gatherings with peers seem impossible because of COVID-19 health and safety issues, students like senior Quinn Cassidy only need to boot up their computers or smartphones and launch a single application to connect with friends.  No, it’s not...

Rocking the vote by wearing the “vote.”

Inspired by teachers at Lebanon Trail High School, the social studies department is wearing

By Wingspan Staff, Liberty High School - TX

October 14, 2020

Inspired by the social studies department at Lebanon Trail High School, the social studies department on campus is wearing "Vote." T-shirts every Tuesday leading up to Election Day on Nov. 3. Hear what each teacher has to say about voting by clicking on a dot. This story was originally published ...

Digital Learning: The Difference Between Synchronous and Asynchronous Learning

A student's digital learning setup during distance synchronous learning at Jesuit High School.

By Isabel Crespo, Jesuit High School

October 14, 2020

With digital learning becoming the new reality for students due to COVID-19, administrators and teachers have developed new and innovative ways to conduct learning. Online learning can be categorized into three learning styles: synchronous, asynchronous, and a hybrid of the two. At Jesuit High...

School in the Time of COVID-19

Students in Spain social distance and wear masks as they resume in-person school.

By Amelie de Leon, Woodside High School - CA

October 14, 2020

The new school year has begun for students across the world in recent weeks. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, they return to circumstances they have never seen before. The Paw Print reached out to students in Spain, Japan, and Kyrgyzstan to find out how these countries are handling school in these unprecedented...

Forster stretches for new opportunities as a yoga instructor

Senior Avery Forster holds the Horizons pose at Highland Yoga, a pose meant to open the hips and to strengthen the legs, arms, and spine.

By Lindsay Ruhl, Henry W. Grady High School

October 14, 2020

Senior Avery Forster discovered yoga when she was 16 as a way to relieve stress while building strength. Forster recently became a yoga teacher at Highland Yoga, which has locations in Buckhead, Decatur, Reynoldstown and Virginia-Highland. She is one of the youngest to ever complete a teacher training...

A call for sustainability at BSM

BSM's new Sustainability Club calls students to do their part to save the planet.

By Megan Cornell, Benilde-St. Margaret's School

October 14, 2020

As the climate deteriorates, the call for sustainability is being sounded louder than ever. Increased frequency and longevity of natural disasters, uptick in disease, unpredictable weather patterns, depletion of water sources, and a surge in hunger are all imminent effects of climate change. To combat...

“It brings back the old days where nothing really mattered”: Whitman students crave nostalgia over quarantine

When times have been bleak, Whitman students turn to find comfort in the past.

By Quentin Corpuel, Walt Whitman High School

October 14, 2020

In the back of Topher Leonard’s bedroom, the echoes of Fall Out Boy pour out of an old radio. The then nine-year-old Leonard sits hunched over at his desk, fixated on his iPad. He’s playing Minecraft, the three-dimensional adventure game that has taken the gaming community by storm. The outside world...

Kidding around about online school

TAKING A CLOSER LOOK: Nate Baugh earnestly peers at his first-grade friends during a Zoom call regarding rhyming words and syllables. The way Nate sees it, school just isn’t the same without seeing his friends in real life.  “I wish my friends Griffyn and Caleb would zoom through the Zoom and out through my computer,” he said. “But I’m only left with this sausage!” Nate punctuated this sentence by holding up a piece of sausage from the kitchen and giggling so hard he nearly fell over. Photo by Madelynn Niles.

By Madelynn Niles, McCallum High School

October 14, 2020

If third-grader Jackson Baugh was the host of his Zoom classes, he would mute everyone forever and ever and open the chat whenever he wanted.  “That would make online school much better,” he said, and his little brother Nate couldn’t help but agree.  “First grade is harder than kinder...

In-Depth: Voices of Black Students Enduring Racism, Inequity

Eboni Barrow, senior, grappled with the amount of student diversity in RSD, and the district’s lack of a formal stand in solidarity with students of color following the protests against racial injustice. “Having colored people in the community, you should care about what’s happening because racism can affect a student in Rockwood,” Barrow said.

By Lauren Pickett, Marquette High School

October 13, 2020

Sepo Chuunga, junior, was shattered. Footage of summer protests and uprisings made her nervous and desperate. She imagined her father and brothers embodying hashtags—victims of police brutality. Following the killings of unarmed Black Americans such as George Floyd and Breonna Taylor, Chuunga became...

Mid-Autumn Festival in mid-quarantine: A new moon of challenges

“Zhong qiu Jie”, also known as the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival is a traditional holiday that celebrates family togetherness; however, social distancing restrictions this year pose new challenges for families celebrating this holiday.

By Christy Yu, Lynbrook High School - CA

October 13, 2020

In a traditional Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival celebration, also known as zhong qiu jie or the Moon Festival, family members who live apart gather together around the dinner table, eat mooncakes and moon gaze, called shang yue in Chinese. However, with the new norm of social distancing, many families had ...

An in-depth look at the lives and experiences of female firefighters in Northern California

Jenn Panko with her friends from the academy (back row from left to right: David Hoos, Jenn Panko, JD Madden; front row from left to right: Lucy Clark, Aurelio Perez, Doug Christain) when they got hired in 1997.

By Alice Simenstad, Sir Francis Drake High School

October 13, 2020

Roughly 4% of American career firefighters are women, according to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). While the fire service is male-dominated, many women across Northern California are working hard to show that gender does not define capability. As many know, a career in fire is di...

Tiana Day strives for a more equitable future

Dougherty Valley High School alumna Tiana Day ('20) led a protest and started a nonprofit to bring about change in her community.

By Daniela Wise, Shruthi Narayanan, and Shereen Ahmed

October 13, 2020

The Black Lives Matter movement started marches across the country, made national headlines and positively changed the political backdrop of the United States, immediately following the death of George Floyd at the hands of a white police officer, Derek Chauvin. Protests were held and petitions were...

Two MSMS students publish books over summer break

Shanay Desai and Raeed Kabir both spent their summer publishing STEM-related books.

By Kate McElhinney, The Mississippi School for Mathematics and Science

October 13, 2020

While the COVID-19 pandemic kept most students from fulfilling their summer plans, junior Raeed Kabir and senior Shanay Desai wrote and published their own books. Kabir wrote a self-teaching AP Chemistry Prep book, while Desai published an introductory research guide.  Kabir’s book, available on...

Concert band in the era of coronavirus

The band room, left empty months into the school year. The WHHS band directors were tasked with getting this art form across, while still remaining safe due to the pandemic.

By Isabella Zinchini, Walnut Hills High School

October 13, 2020

WHHS’s band department has been working nonstop since the outbreak of COVID-19 to find new innovative ways of learning in a virtual environment as well as preparing for a hybrid style of learning. But what exactly will this look like? Band directors Richard Canter, Andrew Peoples and Edward LeBorgne...

Atiwa jewelry charms customers worldwide

The Atiwa Collection, created by two Whitman seniors, sells European-style jewelry.

By Nil Özdemir, Walt Whitman High School

October 13, 2020

After moving to Bethesda, seniors Esther Ferrero and Lucia Kaiser were often showered in compliments from peers on their style. “Esther had an elegant and unique style which definitely caught my eye,” junior Giulia Baroldi said. “It was very different from the rest.” But after the two would...

Creating a community: The Porch At Christie’s

Nancy Wahler and her 21-year-old son Alex Wahler who has Autism and Epilepsy.

By Phoebe Miller '23, Staples High School

October 12, 2020

Giving back to the community was always something that Andrea and Bill Percoiello loved to do. After opening a bakery in Norwalk, where students with disabilities learned how to make pastries and work together to build their self-esteem, the Percoiello’s began to look for a place where they could serve...

Quick thinking saves the day

Responding quickly to a classmate undergoing a medical emergency by calling 911, freshman Carsten Swallow was presented with a Frisco PD challenge coin by School Resource Officer Glen Hubbard in recognition of his actions.

“I definitely think this will impact me and the way I think,

By Shreya Jagan, Liberty High School - TX

October 12, 2020

21 days. It’s been 21 days since freshman Carsten Swallow potentially saved someone’s life. September 17 was just another normal day for Carsten as he sat in his 2B class expecting to learn Spanish. That’s when a student had a sudden medical emergency. “My whole class was in the middle...

Sophomore forms nationwide community outreach program to deliver soothing music video performances for the elderly during COVID-19 pandemic

With her iPhone placed on the far right end of her piano set for video recording, sophomore Lauren Pak starts her practice session Aug. 19 from her Fullerton home, playing a composition titled, “Promise of the World,” from the Japanese anime, “Howl’s Moving Castle.”  Pak will eventually record the final version as a trio with two other student volunteers as part of the Harmony4Homes community service project that she started in the summer to send video music performances to the elderly in local and national nursing homes.

By Minjeong Kim, Sunny Hills High School

October 12, 2020

Sophomore Lauren Pak still remembers the day she was inspired by her community service idea of delivering video recordings of teenagers playing soothing music to the elderly at local and national nursing homes. Pak’s first year at Sunny Hills was ending in May, and she knew she would find herself ...

Testing, testing: a history of the SAT

Throughout its history, the SAT has struggled to define what it means to assess academic ability.

By Renee Ge, Lynbrook High School - CA

October 12, 2020

School closures. Canceled SATs. Test-optional or test-blind college applications. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, standardized testing was ubiquitous to the high school experience — millions of students took the SAT and ACT, which were administered nearly monthly, each year. However, the pandemic halted...

The STEM Stigma Among High School Girls

In 2020, women make up less than 16% of all engineers and less than 22% of the entire STEM workforce.

By Maddie Glaum, Academy of the Holy Names

October 9, 2020

Girls can do it… right? Thankfully, the social disparity between men and women is not as prominent today as it once was. In every societal aspect, there is a push to level the playing field between the two sexes in entertainment, sports, positions of power, and the workplace, to name a few — and...

The Impact of COVID-19 on CUSD Custodians

A school girl wearing a mask uses hand sanitizer to keep bacteria off her hands. CUSD has implemented a whole new set of guidelines to help students and staff stay safe and healthy during school reopenings.

By Isabella Bernabeo, Sage Creek High School

October 8, 2020

As coronavirus swept through the United States, the world’s “new normal” was kindled. On March 13, life as mankind knew it was changed. The strike of COVID-19 has re-constructed society and the standard lifestyle. Students’ homes were invaded with academia while teachers’ living-rooms became...

How AV civics classes are covering the presidential debates

AP Government students recently studied party politics and voting regulations; they can easily relate their coursework to current events.

By Sonali Carumbaya, Amador Valley High School

October 8, 2020

The internet is currently rampant with analysis of the presidential debates. And the discussion is being furthered in AVHS classrooms. Civics teachers are encouraging their students to watch the debates, incentivizing them with live discussions and extra-credit assignments. “In our class, we...

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